What is communism?
People who grew up and were educated in the Soviet years do not need to be explained. This is a socio-economic structure in which everyone strives to do everything for society, and at the same time receives all the material and spiritual benefits that he wishes. For 74 years a large-scale experiment took place in our country, the purpose of which was to build a society of universal equality. Similar attempts have been made in many other countries.
Marxism as a science
The practical construction of communism began immediately after October 1917 (old style). Prior to this, a theoretical elaboration of methods and goals was carried out, and it continued in the years of the domination of the most advanced ideology in the world. In the Communist Manifesto (1848), composed by Marx and Engels, all the injustices of the capitalist system were listed in detail, and the method of dealing with them was indicated. The leading role in this process was assigned to the proletariat, as the most conscious and cohesive class. Later, Marxism itself became the subject of study, at first a few adepts, and then, after the revolution,and whole institutions understood the wisdom of the "science of all sciences." In universities, students were taught scientific communism. This was supposed to bring the bright moment of achieving universal justice, after which there is nowhere to move.
But once, at the dawn of mankind, he was already. In prehistoric tribes, everyone enjoyed equal rights, the leader was elected completely centrally democratically, sought to survive together, and divided the prey according to need. Such a social structure was designated by the historical sociological term “primitive communism”. This did not mean that one should return to the era of stone axes and cave life, on the contrary, the fact of the existence of such a system in the past was corrected with the Hegelian dialectic in the aspect of the “development spiral”. If people have already lived once, distributing the benefits together and fairly, which can prevent the establishment of such orders at a different, higher level of science, technology and technology? That is how the first Marxists reasoned. Perhaps they somewhat idealized the primitive communal system.
Phases of communism
Mankind, in the opinion of Marx and his followers, changed in the process of its development various formations in a certain sequence.Capitalism came to replace feudalism, monarchies were supplanted by republican rule, and then the proletariat inevitably arose. After the appearance of the working class, the bourgeoisie was already doomed, it itself cultivated its own executioners and grave-diggers. Then came the turn of the socialist revolution, in which, as Marxist V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) defined, unwillingness to live in the old way was a peculiar resonance with the inability of the upper classes to preserve the status quo. But communism could not come at once. This was hampered by many inertial phenomena, namely, private ownership instincts, backward national self-consciousness, and even the institution of the family. For universal socialization required all these atavisms to overcome. And the production base should be created such that it is possible to distribute everything and everything for nothing. In general, for subsequent generations, a task was formulated called the "triune" (J. V. Stalin, "The Questions of Leninism", 1930). And the period of its implementation is called socialism, after which communism should have come directly. This time was somewhat delayed.
It happens and the military
Revolutionary phenomena accompanied by devastation. The word it means the massive loss of people and their property. Since market self-regulation ceased to operate due to the destruction of the economic foundations of Russia, the new authorities began to pursue a policy of war communism. This meant that all the material benefits and human resources available at that time were placed at the disposal of the proletarian state, whose organs carried out their distribution. Trade was banned and declared speculation, all citizens were obliged to work under compulsion, receiving a standard ration (there were others for management, according to the categories). Money as such lost not only the payment function, but also any meaning, however, temporarily. The peasants were subjected to food distribution, in other words, they took everything from them. In the period of the Civil War of 1918-1921, according to the authors of the book The History of the CPSU, it was precisely the policy of military communism that was necessary. This monstrous time ended after the Kronstadt rebellion. Then the NEP was introduced.
Old new policy as a temporary departure
In fact, there was nothing new in the new economic policy. Allowing limited private initiative under the slogan “Get Rich!” Became a necessary measure designed to “let off the accumulated steam” of popular indignation threatening the very existence of Soviet power. At the same time, the creation of an industrial and energy base for the further spread of Marxism to new countries continued. The leaders of the RSFSR, and after 1922 the USSR, were aware that as long as the capitalist environment existed, it was impossible to build communism. This position was recorded in many party documents. There were only two options. Either the capitalists of all countries will unite and crush the shoots of a new society in a single country, or vice versa, socialism will win. In any case, war was inevitable.
Communism was given many definitions. To the Leninist formula “communism is Soviet power plus electrification” in the fifties, the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee N. S. Khrushchev added one more component, chemicalization. By that time, the world socialist system had been created,uniting many countries on different continents, the Victory over fascist Germany and its allies was won, significant achievements in the field of space research and the arts were demonstrated, socialism was finally declared. Communism is the highest phase in the development of social relations. The end of its construction was announced at the XXII Congress of the CPSU, and even the approximate date of the attack was named. "The current generation" accounted for 1980. But communism never came.
The number "3" has always been in our special account. Three warriors, the father had three sons, the Dream Kingdom, the Holy Trinity ... Theorists of scientific communism did not ignore it. The task of building a fundamentally new society consisted of three equally important points. First, about the earth. While the residents of the socialist camp compared their life with the living conditions of workers in developed capitalist countries (they didn’t want them with backward ones) and complained about the constant shortage of many goods, low wages and pensions, there were some advantages (by the way, they could) from high tribunes. In a sense, the policy of war communism is the first attempt at the cost of incredible efforts to overcome the decline in production that occurred after the Civil War.And without a successful development of the material base it is impossible to talk about progress at all. This time.
The second part of the triune task was to create some kind of special relationships in society, in which the very idea of the possibility of mutual exploitation would be disgusting to all its members. And if the development of the material sphere seemed problematic, the socio-economic aspect was much more complicated.
And the third was the most difficult, the main problem. A new man was required. And where to get it, if everything around, even very young, is still hopelessly old? The Communists had the answer to this question: “Educate!” And they developed pedagogical methods and defended their dissertations. Did not work out.
Was it possible?
And today there is a perception that the idea itself is not bad, we can say, good, but its implementation is unsuccessful. Now, if in 1937 Lenin's Guards were not exterminated, or there was no war, or Khrushchev would not plant the Arctic with corn, or Trotsky would stand at the helm ... But Lev Davydovich had his own ideas about what a proletarian state should be and Stalin’s methods look very soft compared to them.So, in particular, he suggested that the entire population of the country be brought to work in the labor armies, that is, until the complete victory of the world revolution, support permanent war communism in the country.
This definition is well suited for the actions of Pol Pot, and Mao, and Enver Hoxha, and many other figures who went down in history as eminent savages. There were softer regimes with “human faces”, but the more they softened, the more they moved away from the cherished goal, becoming ordinary revisionists. After all, the main thing that distinguishes a real communist is the complete rejection of private ownership of the means of production.