Diabetes mellitus, the causes of
This endocrine disease is widespreadworldwide. About 10% of the population of developed countries suffers. The number of patients is constantly growing. Medicine has drugs that prolong the life of patients and make it more complete. However, diabetes mellitus, the reasons for its occurrence, need further study.
There are two types of disease. Type 1 (it is called the diabetes of the young) is due to insulin deficiency. Type 2 is related to the fact that body cells lose sensitivity to this hormone and do not absorb glucose at its normal and even elevated concentration.
Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreasiron. It is produced by beta cells of the so-called islets of Langerhans. The alpha-cells entering the same islets produce another hormone, which affects the carbohydrate metabolism - glucagon.
Under the action of insulin, sugar from the blood enterscells, and its excess in the form of glycogen deposited in the liver. The second hormone, glucagon, has the opposite effect - it stimulates the breakdown of glycogen and increases the level of sugar. Causes of diabetes in its first type are closely related to the violation of insulin production. The role of the hormone in the body is great. It affects all types of metabolism, makes cell membranes permeable for glucose, enhances protein synthesis and inhibits the breakdown of lipids. Under its action, the appetite increases and the fat mass increases, the level of cholesterol rises.
Diabetes mellitus, the causes of whichare associated with a violation of insulin production, is divided into two types: autoimmune and having an unclear nature - idiopathic. Autoimmune diabetes is associated with the pathological production of antibodies against the tissues of its own pancreas. They are formed by the immune system, in response to damage to the cells of the gland by the inflammatory process, infection, and the action of toxic substances. Antibodies destroy cells that produce insulin. When the active cells remain 20% or less, clinical signs of diabetes appear.
Diabetes mellitus, the causes of whichassociated with a violation of the sensitivity of cell receptors to insulin, occurs in people of elderly and middle age. He often has excessive body weight, especially obesity by the abdominal type. He is predisposed to burdened heredity, improper nutrition with a predominance of carbohydrates and fats in food. Constant stresses, in which adrenaline and glucocorticoids are released into the blood, also contribute to the development of the disease.
Some drugs may provoke diabetes: thiazide diuretics, glucocorticoids, antitumor drugs. There are often cases when after their application develops diabetes mellitus. The causes of its origin are also associated with the presence of autoimmune diseases of other organs - the adrenal and thyroid gland.
With insulin deficiency, all types of exchange suffer. Tissues do not get the energy they need, and the amount of sugar in the blood becomes higher and higher. Compensatory amplification of alternative processes of glucose processing. But they are not enough to saturate the body with energy. In the blood, toxic substances and non-oxidized lipid exchange products accumulate. Decay of the protein is activated. There is a process of glycosylation of hemoglobin. The first symptoms of the disease appear.
A little about how diabetes is manifested. Symptoms of it grow gradually. Patients feel dry mouth and constant thirst. They have an increased appetite, despite this, they often lose weight. They can be bothered by the constant itching of the mucous membranes and skin. On the skin there are pustules and furuncles. Decreased performance, there is rapid fatigue.
To the appearance of such symptoms it is necessary to treatattention, be sure to see a doctor and examine the blood sugar. Timely diagnosis and help in time to prescribe treatment and avoid possible complications.