Frederick syndrome: signs, diagnosis and treatment
Frederick Syndrome is a syndrome that includes a whole range of clinical and electrocardiographic features that are characteristic of third-level AV-blockade, that is, complete transverse blockade in combination with atrial fibrillation (otherwise fibrillation).
What is Frederick syndrome?
In the condition that provokes this symptom, the atria function irregularly and erratically, in some examples, atrial fibrillation is changed to flutter. In this situation, the heart rhythm is aligned, however, it continues to decline too quickly, and intracardiac geodynamics is observed (movement of blood from the atria to the ventricles).
With flickering arrhythmias, impulses with atrial bulging routes are sent to the ventricles, passing along the pathways of the atrioventricular node. Frederick syndrome is characterized by the complete cessation of the movement of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.This condition is called the complete atrioventricular (transverse) blockade of the third level.
Causes of illness
Severe heart diseases of an organic nature can lead to complete atrioventricular blockade:
- complex heart defects (including both congenital and acquired) or combinations of several heart defects in a single patient;
- acute myocardial infarction;
- different types of cardiomyopathy (dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive);
- large focal cardiosclerosis, characteristic of the post-infarction state;
- primary and secondary myocarditis;
- chronic ischemic heart disease.
When the above diseases in the myocardium, there is a development of sclerotic processes that lead to proliferation of connective tissues in the heart. In this case, an important role is played by dystrophy and fillings of this organ. Newly formed tissue replaces healthy cells that generate and pass electrical impulses. As a result, the conduction function is disturbed, and a transverse heart block occurs as a result.It is these processes that provoke the occurrence of such a complicated heart disease as Frederick's syndrome.
Signs of illness
This pathology has no special syndromes characteristic of it, and the symptoms observed during this phenomenon are present in many other diseases. It is difficult for an ordinary patient to independently determine the presence of such a diagnosis as Frederick syndrome. Clinic of this disease is unlikely to help determine its presence.
Signs that mark sick patients:
- general feeling of weakness;
- low performance;
- shortness of breath even with light physical exertion;
- dizziness is possible, and sometimes even fainting is possible.
To confirm Frederick's syndrome, it is imperative to make an electrocardiogram. It is precisely its characteristic results that can be the basis for a doctor issuing a residual verdict. Also, in order to exclude other pathologies, some other specialized studies may be prescribed: heart ultrasound, Holter research.
However, the picture of the study, which gives grounds to confidently diagnose a disease such as Frederick's syndrome, on the ECG is most accurate.
Electrocardiogram with the diagnosis of "Frederick syndrome"
Frederick syndrome has the following ECG picture:
- R-teeth that reflect normal atrial contraction are absent. Instead, the presence of small frequent waves of ff, which reflect atrial fibrillation, or large but rare FF waves, which are a reflection of atrial flutter, is noted.
- The ventricular rhythm is regular, but the number of its contractions per minute is within 40-60 times.
- In the case of rhythm formation in the walls, the ventricular complexes become dilated and deformed.
- If the rhythm is formed at the bottom of the atrioventricular junction, the ventricular complexes become narrow and acquire the usual morphology, which is not abnormal.
Ultrasound examination of the heart
This method is based on ultrasound scanning of the chest cavity. The ultrasound of this organ allows you to specify the characteristics of the main disease and the level of morphological changes in the heart.
Daily monitoring of the electrocardiogram according to Holter
This method makes it possible to rationally estimate the frequency of the rhythm at different times of the day, track the time of the stops, observe the reaction of the heart to different physical exertion, detect the ventricular extrasystole or paroxysm of ventricular tachycardia.
Frederick syndrome: treatment
A complete indicator for the implantation of an artificial pacemaker is the confirmation of such a diagnosis as Frederick syndrome. The syndrome is almost impossible to eliminate with medication, so surgery is considered the most effective treatment.
Single-chamber ventricular stimulation is most commonly used. This operation consists of placing a special electrode into the ventricle of the heart, which will cause impulses causing myocardial impulses. There are VVI-and VVIR-stimulation. Such a device has one active electrode designed to stimulate one of the ventricles. The frequency of the cuts is pre-programmed and is usually equal to 70 beats per minute. The VVIR stimulator is more advanced and can independently change the frequency of shots in accordance with the patient’s physical activity. This method of stimulation can be considered the most natural.
In addition to pacemakers, holinoblockers can be used in treatment. However, modern medicine with every year less and less uses such tools, because they have a negative impact on the mental state of a person.
Prevention, or How to Avoid Illness
Unfortunately, the prevention of such a disease as Frederick's syndrome is absent, because it is usually a consequence of previously suffered diseases. To prevent this phenomenon, it is necessary to prevent and properly cure the ailments that provoke this ailment.
At the slightest suspicion of this disease, it is recommended to immediately contact a specialist and be examined for the presence of this disease. One of the most dangerous conditions for human life is oxygen starvation, which can last about 7 seconds with Frederick’s syndrome. This time will be enough to activate irreversible changes in the human brain.
Finding at least one of the symptoms inherent in this disease, you should immediately contact a specialist. Timely diagnosis and treatment is the key to further full-fledged livelihoods. The prognosis of this disease is favorable and encouraging.