How to make a roof? Roof designs. Roof mounting
A country house is a combination of several components, each of which performs certain functions. For example, it is possible to give housing completeness and protect it from various environmental influences through the roofing system. How to make a roof and what kind, each owner decides for himself, because you can give your cottage a truly unusual look by choosing a particular roof structure.
What are we choosing from?
The type of roof depends on the roof system, while any model of the roof will consist of several elements:
- Mauerlata - the base of the roof, made of reinforced concrete or timber, to which the rafters will be attached,
- crates, which is a thin flooring of boards - it will be on him that the roof covering will be laid,
- waterproofing layer in the form of a special film that protects the roof from moisture,
- vapor barrier layer in the form of a membrane film that absorbs accumulated condensate from the inside and evaporates it outside,
- thermal insulation layer - insulation, which is mounted between the rafters.
Installation of the roof should be carried out in strict accordance with these stages - only so the roofing system will meet all the requirements in terms of reliability and durability. The basis of any roofing work must necessarily be a project that takes into account all the nuances of the construction process.
We build according to the project
Modern projects of roofs are a wide choice of solutions, thanks to which you can make the roof of your house very different. However, it should be not only aesthetic and attractive, but also reliable, so you need to take into account the main factors that form the basis of any project:
- The type of coating is an opportunity to make the roof reliable, durable and beautiful. Modern projects suggest that any material can be used as a roof covering, from expensive ceramic tiles or natural tiles to the usual and economical slate or ondulin.
- Type of construction: the choice should take into account the characteristics of the roofing material.
- Costs: complex roofs of houses will require more substantial costs, especially if they consist of non-standard elements.Experts advise not to save on materials, because it is their quality that determines the constructive reliability of the roof.
- Arrangement of communications is another important part that is necessarily described in the project. The roof is not only a roofing material, but also drains, drainage system, a variety of fences that make the operation of the roof comfortable and safe.
The drafting of the project should be trusted by professionals who will take into account the features of the truss construction, will help you choose materials, calculate the load on the foundation and compare it with a valid indicator.
Types of roof structures
Before you make the roof, you should decide on its design. For many centuries, the trends in housing construction, which are constantly changing. No less significant changes were made and the roof, which today with the simplicity of construction and installation is different aesthetic appearance, functionality and practicality. Modern homeowners prefer the following types of roofing:
- Shed roof - a design on the beams, based on the walls of the house.With different wall heights, such a roof will differ by slope. And if the walls are the same height, you can make the roof exploitable and place on it, for example, a winter garden or a rest room. In most cases, a shed is the roof of a garage or bath, a country house or an economic extension.
- The gable roof is sloping in the form of a triangle slopes, which differ in the same size of slopes and ease of installation. Such a roof is often called a gable.
- A broken roofing system is also a gable construction, the slopes of which are made with a break. Such systems allow you to equip the attic.
- Half-hinged roofs are slopes in the form of trapezoids that form a triangular slope (hip) at the top of the building. Such a roof looks stylish and attractive, although its installation is not so simple. On the other hand, the roof will be as reliable as possible and will keep the heat indoors.
- Tent roofs–these are four triangular hips that converge in the center. Such designs are good for square-shaped houses, arbors.
Roof construction is several components: ventilation, insulation layer, vapor barrier and waterproofing.During installation, it is necessary to take into account the correct sequence of work, because otherwise the roof will let through both cold and moisture. Do-it-yourself roofing is created in several stages:
- Mounted truss system.
- Equipped with a vapor barrier layer.
- Insulated heaters.
- Mounted waterproofing layer.
- The installation of the batten and counter grilles is carried out - they depend on the type of roofing material and the design of the roof as a whole.
- Fitted roofing.
- Settle horse, eaves.
- Equipped with a ventilation system in the roof space.
- Guttering elements are arranged.
All of these steps play an important role in the process of installing a roof. Properly performed calculations are of great importance, since they will form the basis of technical standards, the violation of which will lead to unsafe roofing operation.
How to equip roll roofing?
Often for the arrangement of the roof material is used in rolls. This is due to its high quality and ease of installation. However, without the preparation of the surface still can not do.Before deciding how to make a roof, you need to choose its type. Then we decide on the crate. If you use roofing material, then under this coating you will need to prepare a flat and solid base. Gluing of ruberoid is performed by means of cold mastic or molten bitumen. The material with fine-grained dressing is used as the bottom layer, and coarse-grained material should be used for the top layer. The direction of laying depends on the slope of the slope:
- if it is above 15 degrees, the material is perpendicular;
- if the ramp is flat, the ruberoid is placed parallel to the ridge.
In order for the roof of the roof to be made qualitatively, you need to take into account several rules. First, the mastic layer must be at least 2 mm. Secondly, the overlap of the strips should be 10 cm. Third, an additional layer of roofing material should be laid over the ridge, and the material should hang down 50 cm from the roof slopes. All layers should be laid under the press. On the basis of rolled materials, as a rule, single- and dual-slope, as well as mansard roofs are equipped.
How to make a rooffrom metal?
Metal roof can be installed with special tools.The use of this material provides a number of advantages: durability, reliability, aesthetics of the roof, ease of installation. Crate under the metal coating is bars of 50x50 mm, and in the line of the ridge and cornice the board is laid. In order to achieve high-quality ventilation, the lathing step should be at least 25 cm. This will protect the structure from corrosion, increasing the service life of the roofing system.
When using sheet steel, the sheets are first cut out, pictures are formed, and flanges are created. In addition, each material fits in its own way. For example, the professional flooring is mounted with an overlap that the moisture did not get under a covering. And only after that the sheet is fixed in the deflection of the wave with threaded nails and a rubber gasket.
Tools and fixtures
Installing the roof is a difficult and energy-intensive process that must be carried out in strict adherence to technology with the use of appropriate tools. So, a good roofer should have in his arsenal a large number of hammers that allow you to work with metal sheets. With their help, fasteners are formed on the metal, nails are hammered and removed.Do not do when arranging the roof without tongs - straight, long, curved or short. They are needed for the bends of gutters, processing of tile and the formation of bends on a sheet of metal. Different types of scissors are also needed to work with roofing materials - zinc, copper, steel.
One ramp - what's special?
This kind of roofing system is used most often in the construction of garages or outbuildings, as well as small country houses, which do not require thorough insulation. The design is a flat surface that is covered with a layer of material. Its essence is that the roof rests on walls of different heights, due to which a certain slope is formed. What makes it good: firstly, the ease of installation - such a roof is built very quickly with its own hands. Secondly, the installation process is economical. In addition, each single-pitch construction is a series of elements:
- layers of hydro- and vapor barrier;
If the roof is almost horizontal, then the system of rafters is not needed for it. The lathing is the base of the roof, made of planed boards and treated with antiseptics.Boards should be placed at a certain distance from each other to ensure natural ventilation. Houses with a shed roof require insulation of glass wool, mineral wool or foam, as well as waterproofing and vapor barrier using special films. It is possible to cover a shed roof with any material - corrugated, metal tile, slate or roofing material. The disadvantages of lean-to structures can be attributed too much load due to snow, especially if the roof is made with almost no slope. In addition, one slope is not enough to install an attic or attic.
How is performedroof installation?
Calculation of the roof - one of the important stages, which must necessarily be carried out in the design. It takes into account several points:
- Calculation of the angle of slope: the slopes should be designed in such a way that the water flowed to the ground. The angle depends on the roofing material used: for corrugated flooring it is 20 degrees, for metal tile - 25 degrees, and for slate - 35 degrees.
- The rafters system is needed for load distribution and increasing structural strength.Its installation begins with the installation of a mauerlat bar, which fits the entire length of the load-bearing wall and is fixed with anchor bolts.
- A crate is made of bars that are put across the rafters. It can be solid, and can be stacked at intervals.
- Warming is also an important step, although it can be saved during the construction of a house with one ramp in this process, since there will be less space for penetration of cold air into the room. Warming is best done using glass wool or basalt mats.
- It is also necessary to attach a vapor barrier film to the crate, and then lay the waterproofing material.
- Roof cover - it can be very different.
Two skates - the most popular option
Double-roofed roof - this is the most popular option in the construction of the roofing system. Despite the fact that its structure is quite simple, one cannot do without the involvement of specialists in drawing up a project. The gable design is thought out in such a way as to be reliable and withstand the weight of various precipitations, evenly distributing the load around the entire perimeter of the house.This system is popular today due to the fact that modern projects involve the construction of residential attic between the slopes, which increases the usable space without reducing the space of the country site. Like any other roof, a gable is created on the basis of calculations:
- first, a scheme is designed in which the filling of the roofing pie will be taken into account;
- then the roof is calculated - for this you need to know its area.
The process of mounting the roof is very similar to the above method. A foundation is being prepared on which the roof system will be laid. Rafters are assembled, which can be assembled on the ground. Rafters are attached to each other with a ridge beam. The slopes of the slopes should ideally be at least 45 degrees. A crate is created, after which the insulation material, vapor barrier and waterproofing is laid. At the last stage, the roofing material is laid.
An interesting solution is the project of a house with an attic. In this case, a gable roof is also used, and a room with sloping walls is formed between its slopes. The peculiarity of the attic floor is that it hangs over the whole house and can have a planning solution. To increase the area of the attic, you can not build a gable, and a broken roof.By the way, living attic is not only comfortable, but also decorative: the cottage, decorated with the attic floor, looks cozy and interesting.
The four-slope roof: modern and spacious
If the size of the plot allows, as well as your own funds, you can install the roof in four ramps. The peculiarity of such a roof is decorative, allowing you to give your country house a certain architectural appearance. At the same time, the design is notable for simplicity of the device and construction, and any materials can be used for its coating. The gable roof has no gables, so its installation will be simple, no additional material costs will be required. The main condition is that the roof be reliable and withstand certain loads. There are several types of hipped roofs:
Each of them has its own characteristics, and it is worth understanding that the projects of such roofs are expensive because of the unusual and difficult construction of the roof.
The correct roof - what is it? Everyone will answer this question in their own way. For some, this is a traditional gable roof,giving the house integrity and completeness, and someone prefers more modern options, for example, a hipped roof for their country cottage. Any of these options has the right to exist, and this is proved by the projects of the roofs - so diverse and interesting. Having decided to build a house, find good designers who will carry out competent calculations and tell you how to do the installation, based on what design and from what materials. When installing the roofing system without professional help just can not do. Specialists will help you with the choice of building materials, construction technology, design and installation, will do everything to ensure that your home will serve you reliably and for a long time.