Methyl alcohol (or methanol) is acolorless liquid. It is easily mixed with water and various solvents that have an organic base. By taste and smell, methyl alcohol (formula CH3OH) practically does not differ from ethyl alcohol, however it is toxic and can cause the strongest poisoning. Methanol has a low boiling point. It is 64.5 degrees Celsius. When burning, this substance has a pale blue flame and does not smoke.
In vivo it is impossible to find methanolin a free form. In nature, there are only derivatives of methyl alcohol, which are esters and oils. They are ubiquitous. Methyl ether of anthranilic acid is contained in the oil of jasmine, and salicylic - in the oil of the gulletin. Methanol derivatives are found in alkaloids, natural dyes, and the like.
Previously, methanol was produced by a process of dry distillation of wood raw materials. Modern industrial manufacturers use synthetic methods.
Methyl alcohol is widely used inAs a solvent for paints and varnishes. It is used as a starting element for the preparation of formaldehyde, dimethyl sulfate, methyl chloride and other compounds produced chemically. It is also one of the components of antifreeze and is used for the denaturation of ethyl alcohols.
Methanol is a poison whose actionextends to the vascular and nervous systems. The toxicity of the substance is due to its oxidation upon ingestion and conversion to life-threatening formaldehyde.
Methyl alcohol, the poisoning of which canto come already after taking five to ten milliliters, causes a person to blindness. A dose exceeding thirty grams often leads to a lethal outcome, which comes from stopping the work of the respiratory system, swelling of the lungs or the brain, as well as uremia or collapse. Symptoms of mild methanol poisoning include:
- general malaise;
Thus, the danger to healthrepresents not only methyl alcohol in its pure form, but also mixtures, the content of methanol in which is small. The release of a toxic substance into the body can occur not only through the digestive system. The vapors of alcohol penetrate through the lungs. Methanol in small amounts can penetrate the body and through the skin.
Methyl alcohol in some countries findsapplication in the form of a denaturing element to ethanol. The substance obtained as a result of this chemical reaction is one of the components of the products produced in the perfume industry. The legislation of the Russian Federation prohibits the use of methanol in goods intended for general consumption.
Methyl alcohol finds its use inas a semi-product of the bulk of industrial synthesis in the chemical industry. Based on it, polymers and various organic substances are produced. Methanol is widely used as an agent in the preparation of certain types of pesticides.
Methyl alcohol is the raw material for the production ofmethylamine, pentaerythritol and urotropine. It is used in the production of polyvinyl chloride, ion exchange and urea resins, as well as in the manufacture of photographic films. Without methanol, the operation of ammonia plants is not possible. Methyl alcohol is widely used in the pharmacological industry in the manufacture of medicines. This liquid can serve as fuel in power plants, be a substitute for gasoline for motor vehicles. Without methanol, acetic acid and synthetic rubber are not produced. This substance also finds its application in metallurgy and in the objects of oil and gas complexes.