Periodontitis of the tooth - what is it? Periodontitis of infant teeth: causes, symptoms and treatment characteristics
Healthy teeth are the dream of every person. Therefore, it is very important to know the possible pathologies of the oral cavity and how to avoid and treat them. In the article we will consider such a disease as periodontitis of the tooth. What is it, what are the preventive measures and the methods of treatment, you will learn by reading it.
What is periodontitis?
Periodontitis is a common complicationcaries. The disease is mainly affected by children of all ages. About a third of the small patients are diagnosed with periodontitis. But in addition to caries, there are other causes of this disease.
Periodontitis is the process of inflammation of the tissueperiodontal disease. That's where the name of the disease came from. Periodontium - a site between a root of a tooth and a jaw. This area develops in children during the entire process of tooth growth. The periodontium changes constantly, until the permanent teeth are formed. Periodontitis of baby teeth, of course, is treated. Next, we will consider in more detail the treatment of this disease, as well as the methods of prevention. In addition, it should be noted that not only temporary teeth are affected by this disease. But periodontitis of permanent teeth is less common.
Differences between pulpitis and periodontitis
Very often patients confuse pulpitis and periodontitistooth. What is this and what is the difference, the attending physician can explain. But there is not always an opportunity to question him, so it is better to know in advance at least about how these diseases differ.
So, pulpitis is an inflammation of the tooth pulp. It arises from the fact that infection from the cavity of the tooth penetrates into the pulp and thus inflammation develops. It passes directly inside the tooth itself and no tissues, such as periodontium, do not hurt.
Periodontitis is the next stage of pulpitis. When periodontitis begins to develop, the pulp, as a rule, has already died and the infection has passed to the tissues that are located below the root of the tooth (periodontium).
So, we briefly examined the periodontitis of the tooth. What it is and how it differs from pulpitis, we hope you became clear.
Causes of periodontitis
The appearance of periodontitis is influenced by a number of factors:
- The caries is the main cause of periodontitis. Routine examinations at the dentist allow to identify and treat caries in time and thus prevent the development of periodontitis.
- Incorrect treatment of caries, pulpitis. Sometimes the dentist does not notice the possible development of pulpitis and treats caries on the tooth in the usual way. Unexpected pulpitis continues to develop and increases the risk of periodontal inflammation.
- Improper selection of devitalizing pulpmedical means. If little mummifying agents have been used in pulpitis treatment, the pulp continues to become inflamed and periodontitis of the infant teeth can develop.
- The situation is the opposite of the one described above. If mummified medical devices are many or they are in the tooth for longer than the prescribed time, periodontitis of temporary teeth may develop.
- Damage to periodontal tissue by the chemical action of the means for performing sterilization of the dental canals.
- Sensitivity or individualintolerance to certain medications. They are usually introduced into the lumen of the root canal during caries treatment and have no effect on the periodontium. But if the child is allergic, these drugs can cause periodontitis of the root of the tooth. Treatment is required immediately, since the allergen continues to function, and it must be disposed of.
- Various injuries in the treatment of caries, aggressive dental actions.
- Broken bite, fixed seal withoutalignment of the tooth surface can lead to microtraumatic periodontal tissue and provoke periodontitis of the tooth. Children with an incorrect bite need to show the orthodontist and watch so that they do not have bad habits, for example, gnawing pens.
- Directly injured teeth (bruises, fractures of the root of the tooth). Such serious violations can occur during the fall, with a strong blow to the face, car accident, etc.
So, we briefly considered such a disease as periodontitis of the tooth. What is it, what are the causes of the occurrence, you now know. Next, consider the classification of this disease.
Types of periodontitis
Periodontitis is divided according to the following features:
- To the flow.
- Type of teeth.
By localization it happens:
- Marginal - periodontal tissues that cover the neck of the tooth are affected. Infection in this case can spread through inflamed gums.
- The apical - covers that part of the periodontal that contacts the apex of the tooth root. In this case, the infection comes from damaged tooth pulp.
In the course of periodontitis is divided into:
- Acute - has pronounced symptoms, butX-ray of the tooth shows only small changes. Acute periodontitis is serous (simple inflammation) and purulent (inflammation, which is accompanied by tissue destruction).
- Chronic - can develop against a background of acuteform or after a chronic pulpitis. Typically, the symptoms are similar to those that occur with deep caries, so do not rush to the dentist. This is what causes the development of advanced forms of the disease.
The type of teeth can be:
- On temporary teeth.
- On permanent teeth.
Symptoms of acute disease
The main symptoms of acute periodontitis:
- Constant, unbearable pain, which intensively increases. If you press on the tooth, knock on it, then the pain sensations increase. This localization of pain can accurately determine the patient's tooth.
- Around the aching tooth, the gum is swollen. Children may have a little increase in body temperature, they become lethargic, there is nausea and vomiting.
- Lymph nodes are enlarged, their soreness is increased when palpation.
Symptoms of chronic periodontitis
Chronic periodontitis can also be detected by some symptoms, although this is much more complicated than in the case of an acute form of the disease:
- Outside the exacerbation of the chronic form of the diseasealmost no symptoms. There is a fickle, aching pain. As a rule, it manifests itself at night, when it is loaded on a sick tooth or when eating food with a pronounced taste (sour, sweet). During the examination, tapping on the tooth occurs without pain, the gums are not inflamed. Lymph nodes can be inflamed.
- Chronic long periodontitis is accompanied by attacks of exacerbation. During this period, complaints and symptoms are similar to the acute form of the disease.
- There may be general weakness, fatigue or drowsiness.
Diagnosis of the disease
To diagnose acute periodontitis is enougheasily. On examination, the aching tooth responds with pain when tapping it. The appearance of the disease is also indicated by external signs: a significant increase in lymph nodes, inflammation and swelling of the gums around the affected tooth.
Chronic periodontitis is difficult to detect with normal dental examination. In this case, an X-ray is necessary.
Periodontitis of a baby tooth: treatment
Итак, мы рассмотрели виды периодонтита и его symptoms. Further, we will consider in detail the treatment of this disease. The process of eliminating periodontitis depends on the type of teeth (dairy or permanent). Treatment of periodontitis of temporary teeth should be carried out, given the type, severity of the disease.
For proper and complex therapy, it is sometimes necessary to use general anesthesia. Only this method of anesthesia will provide free access to the tooth in order to carry out the treatment in full.
The method of anesthesia is chosen individually forevery child. It is necessary to take into account his age, possible concomitant diseases, parental wishes, and also how much the child is morally ready for treatment.
Dentists, as a rule, try to avoidremoval of milk teeth during treatment. Because of this, various complications can arise: bite dysfunction, the growth of the molar tooth beyond the jaw arc, resorption of the root rudiment and much more. This is why it is necessary to approach the removal of the milk tooth with special responsibility.
There are several indications for removal:
- Dissociation of the root of the temporary tooth is more than half.
- High risk of complications.
- Previous unsuccessful attempts at standard treatment.
- Mobility of a sick tooth.
- Before the appearance of permanent teeth, about half a year remains.
Treatment of periodontitis of permanent teeth
To start a qualitative treatment of periodontitis on permanent teeth, the dentist should evaluate how much the tooth has a mature root. On multi-rooted teeth, each root must be considered separately.
Treatment of chronic periodontitis on the teeth canto be limited to one visit to the doctor or to be dragged on a little. One visit is sufficient for single-rooted teeth. Multicorns require a second visit to the doctor.
In the treatment of periodontitis, temporary and permanentteeth need to dissect the cavity and arch of the pulp chamber. Then, the affected periodontal tissues should be carefully removed from the root canals. After cleaning, the tooth should be sealed. If a repeated visit to the dentist is required, instead of a filling in the tooth, preparations are put (antibiotics, enzymes). After a while they get out, finish the treatment and put a permanent seal.
With acute periodontitis it is necessary to takeantibiotics orally for three to five days. In the chronic form of the disease, the question of taking antibiotics is decided by the dentist individually for each client.
In forecasting a very important role is played bytimeliness of treatment. If it is carried out on time, the probability of keeping the tooth is high enough. If the inflammation does not affect the bone tissue, then the prognosis is favorable.
Prevention of disease
First of all, in order to prevent the onset of periodontitis, it is necessary to undergo an annual checkup at the dentist. The revealed caries should be immediately cured to avoid complications.
Parents must necessarily fight the harmful habits of children (gnawing pens, pencils). This will help to avoid microtrauma in the oral cavity and prevent the development of periodontitis.