Signs of chlamydia in women. Causes, treatment, effects of chlamydia
Chlamydia is one of the most common causes of female infertility. It is an insidious disease that may be asymptomatic for years. To avoid problems, every woman should know the main reasons for his appearance and preventive measures.
Chlamydia disease is a collection of infections, the causative agents of which are different subspecies of microorganisms Chlamidia trachomatis. They affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The problem of this disease today is extremely acute. In the past few years, there has been an active increase in the number of infected, not only among adults, but also among adolescents. The sad statistics is due to early onset of sexual activity, neglect of contraceptive methods, poor awareness of the possible consequences.In approximately 50% of cases, chlamydia in women causes infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
Main infection routes
The development of this disease and the manifestation of its symptoms primarily depends on the way in which the infection occurred. How is chlamydia transmitted?
- Sexual way.In this case, the inflammatory process begins directly on the vaginal mucosa, then goes to the fallopian tubes. After this pathology spreads to the urethra. Any sexual contact with an infected person without the use of barrier contraception entails infection.
- Vertical path.This infection of an infant from the mother during childbirth, that is, at the time of passage through the birth canal.
- Contact-household way.Scientists cannot provide evidence of the likelihood of such an infection. It is assumed that infection is not excluded when using items of personal hygiene, underwear.
- Airborne way.This is a very rare way of infection.
Diagnosis of this pathology is difficult, because often there are no signs of chlamydia in women. Here we are talking about the so-called asymptomatic course.Obvious clinical signs of the disease are found only in 33% of women. Hidden current is dangerous the emergence of serious complications. In addition, the lack of timely treatment threatens the health of the unborn child if the woman is in position.
The incubation period is from 14 to approximately 30 days. If sexual infection occurs, the first signs of chlamydia in women appear two weeks after intercourse with an infected partner. When chlamydia enters the body, it undergoes several conditional stages of development:
- First step.The pathogen enters the vaginal mucosa.
- Second phase.Cells begin to multiply actively in the presence of favorable conditions.
- The third stage.Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the affected organ. Pathogenic cells enter the extracellular space and rapidly attack new “targets”.
Who is at risk of chlamydia infection?
- Persons who allowed early sexual activity (girls under 18).
- Having multiple intimate connections that allow the absence of barrier contraceptives (the more untested partners, the higher the risk of infection).
- If a person has previously diagnosed chlamydia or other sexually transmitted diseases.
How does chlamydia occur in women?
The symptoms of this disease, as already noted, may not appear for a long time. That is why an examination by a gynecologist is required to establish the cause of the pathology. Infection infection may indicate:
- Itching and burning in the vagina.
- Frequent urination.
- The appearance of characteristic discharge with an unpleasant smell.
- Pain in the lower abdomen.
- Discomfort during intimacy.
- Temperature rise to subfebrile values.
The symptoms of chlamydia in women described above are characteristic of the acute stage. If after some time they disappear, it means that the pathology has become chronic.
Diagnosis of the disease
If there is at least one of the above symptoms, you should consult a gynecologist. Since many causes can trigger such symptoms, starting from genital infections and ending with serious pathologies, only a qualified specialist can determine their nature.
The diagnosis is confirmed on the basis of the patient's complaints, examination and anamnesis.Additionally, you may need to be tested for chlamydia. Currently, the most informative test is PCR. Other methods (smear or mini-test for chlamydia) often do not accurately reflect the patient's condition. Incorrect diagnosis leads to poor treatment.
Doctors recommend that all women, without exception, visit the gynecologist twice a year and undergo a full examination. This is necessary for the timely detection of diseases.
How to overcome chlamydia? Treatment (drugs and local therapy) is appointed exclusively by a specialist after passing all tests. Moreover, medications are selected on an individual basis, taking into account the stage of the disease, symptoms and the presence of concomitant pathologies.
The fight against any sexually transmitted infections begins with antibiotics ("Azithromycin", "Doxycycline"). In the case of chlamydia, various groups of antibacterial drugs are prescribed, based on the sensitivity of the pathogen to them. The course of therapy is usually 14 days. The scheme of treatment for chlamydia proposed by the physician should be strictly followed, it should not be interrupted by itself.This can lead to resistance to the agent.
All patients, without exception, doctors prescribe immunity correction. For these purposes, multivitamin complexes (Vitrum, Alphabet) and adaptogens are used.
For local therapy, used tampons impregnated with drugs, and external ointment. Particular attention is paid to physiotherapy (magnetic therapy, electrophoresis with medicinal substances).
The standard treatment for chlamydia involves the restoration of intestinal microflora and vagina, thereby creating local immunity. Inside, the use of prebiotics (Linex) and probiotics (Hilak Forte, Atsipol) is recommended.
If an infection is detected in a woman, her sexual partner is examined and treated. Such events can prevent re-infection.
For the duration of the entire course of therapy, the woman should completely eliminate sex, limit exercise, refuse to accept alcohol and junk food. After the end of treatment, retesting should be done to ensure positive results.
Consequences of Chlamydia
Inflammatory processes that accompany the infection, can spread to other systems of internal organs. The most common complications of chlamydia include the following:
- Adnexitis(inflammation of the appendages). This complication can lead to the formation of numerous adhesions in the fallopian tubes. Due to this pathological process, their patency is disturbed, which is the cause of infertility.
- Endocervicitis. The disease increases the risk of the formation of malignant tumors in the cervix.
- Reiter's syndrome(arthritis + conjunctivitis + urethritis). Usually develops on the background of an acute variant of the course of the disease.
Chlamydia in women is especially dangerous during pregnancy. Symptoms of the disease do not appear immediately. If a woman neglects the pathology and postpones a visit to the doctor, the likelihood of serious complications increases significantly. The disease can lead to premature birth, fetal death, miscarriage, polyhydramnios. Infection with a fetus infection is reflected in the functioning of its systems and organs. Chlamydia usually affects the lungs, liver, and heart of a baby.
How chlamydia is transmitted, we have already told. Now it's time to talk about how to prevent it. According to experts, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure. That is why doctors have developed a kind of set of rules, strict adherence to which reduces the risk of infection.
The first step is to avoid casual sex. If unprotected sexual intercourse does occur, after about two weeks you should undergo a full examination by a gynecologist. It is extremely important to use contraception. If a woman is not sure of her partner, it is better to choose barrier options (condom).
Chlamydia is a serious illness, the consequences of which can accompany a woman for many years, even with quality treatment. Oddly enough, but it is this disease most often leads to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Moreover, signs of chlamydia in women in the position indicate an increased risk of miscarriage or premature birth. Taking into account the above, each woman must understand the seriousness of this pathology, not refuse treatment and observe preventive measures.