The Armenian highlands are a mountainous region in the north of the Near East. Ancient State in the Armenian Highlands
For the first time the term "Armenian Highland" appeared in1843 in the monograph of Hermann Wilhelm Abich. This is a Russian-German geologist, who spent some time in Transcaucasia, and then introduced the name of the area. Today, numerous disputes are taking place about its belonging to the Armenian people as a heritage. However, in the article we will consider different points of view, as well as physical prerequisites for the origin of the terrain.
How did the Armenian Highland?
This territory belongs to the Alpo-Himalayanmountain system. In ancient times, it was covered with the waters of the ancient Tethys ocean, which is confirmed by excavations and finds in the layers of the earth: various remains of corals, fish, mollusks, etc. For paleontologists it is a good opportunity to study various representatives of the flora and fauna of that time. And the reason for the formation of the Caucasus Mountains, the Armenian Highland, Tibet (since these are nearby areas) and the ascent from the ocean waters is the following.
As a result of the clash between Eurasia and ArabiaGondwana's appearance appeared the Caucasus and the Armenian Highlands. The collision of Hindustan and Eurasia led to the fact that the sedimentary layers of the ocean floor, which lay between the two slabs, crumpled and climbed skyward. This led to the formation of the Himalayas, Tibet and other high mountains of this area.
In the Neogene period, the Highlands many timessplit under the influence of internal volcanoes. Lava, which was poured out through the cracks of the earth's crust, smoothed the folding of the highlands. It covered almost the entire surface of this territory with basalt strata. To date, the highlands are in the Near East. On the four sides it is surrounded by other territories - the Asia Minor and Iranian highlands, the Black Sea and Mesopotamian plains.
Mountainous formations of the locality
The Armenian highlands have a large numberhigh ridges, large chains of volcanic cones, and also some extinct volcanoes. The highest point of this territory is the mountain of Big Ararat. It has a height of 5165 meters. Somewhat smaller is Small Ararat (3925 meters) and Syuphan (4434 meters), which are in Turkey. Armenia has a mountain Aragats, which has a height of 4090 meters, and in Iran - Sabalan (4821 meters) and Sahend (3707 meters).
What territories are included in the highland
It should also be listed which territoriesare on this exaltation, what it includes. For example, the massif of the Armenian highland is the entire territory of Turkey and Armenia, the western part of Iran and Azerbaijan, the south of Georgia.
Features of the territory
This highland is considered to be one of the largest ofthose that are formed by lava. As mentioned above, its origin is such that in different periods of the Earth this territory underwent tremendous changes in its structure. Then it rose to the surface from the sea as a result of a collision of plates, which led to a folded structure, then split, releasing a large amount of lava from the bowels of the earth. It should be noted that some mountains that are on the highlands are extinct volcanoes (for example, Ararat), and the territory itself is considered seismically unstable.
The height of the Armenian highland to date -1500-1800 meters above sea level. This is much larger than the neighboring Iranian plateau and the Anatolian plateau. If we talk about the area of the highlands, then it is equal to 400 thousand square kilometers.
It should be noted that it is here that the sourcesmany rivers, for example the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Araks, the Kura. Almost every river of the Armenian highland is filled with melting snow and falling rain. Also, the water basin is composed of numerous lakes (the largest are Sevan, Van, Urmia).
Ancient state in the highlands
This territory has always had a population. Since the geological formation was terminated, it has assumed a modern appearance. Of course, confirmation of some state formations can be found only in mythological chronicles or in cuneiforms of other peoples (more studied).
The oldest state on the Armenian plateau,which has documentary evidence and archaeological (excavations), is called Urartu. It existed from the IX century BC. e. until the VI century BC. e. In the heyday of the state of Urartu occupied one of the main places in the Near East. When it fell into decay, that is, it was conquered by the Medes, this territory became part of the Achaemenid state.
Further formations on this territory of states amounted to the fact that in the II century BC. e. Here was formed the Great Armenia, which is the beginning and the cradle of modern Armenians.
Armenia claims that a great stateUrartu is also the ancient ancestors of Armenians. However, such a statement is controversial, since there is no reliable evidence of this assertion. Some scientists believe that many facts are simply falsified.
The Legacy of the Ancients
Whatever it was, but on the territory of the highlands,especially in recent times, find amazing artifacts that tell us how our ancestors lived, what their customs were, how they lived, and so on. The ancient state on the territory of the Armenian Highlands, it turns out, left its legacy to us, its descendants.
Archaeological excavations near Mount Portasarled to the fact that a whole temple complex was discovered here, which belongs to a more ancient period than even the Egyptian pyramids (thus, it can be argued that the nationality that lived here in antiquity already had a higher level of development). For today four churches have been found, it is supposed to find sixteen more.
Two hundred kilometers from Yerevan foundThe structure, which in its form resembles Stonehead, but has a more ancient origin. It consists of numerous vertically standing poles, which have through holes in the upper part. And if you look at the top of Karavunj (the name of this structure), you can say that its outlines resemble the constellation Cygnus.
Secrets left by ancestors
One of the insoluble mysteries that occupy mindsscientists, are several items found in the territory of Armenia. One of them is a figurine of a bird found in Eastern Armenia in the seventies of the last century. The fact is that its age is not less than three thousand years, and the material from which it is made is unknown to the present day. No modern instrument could damage it.
Another discovery that struck scientists wasiron bits for a horse. They date back to the same time as the bird they found, but they were remarkably well preserved. And it should be noted that the products made of iron began to be made for the first time somewhere a thousand years later.
Thanks to these findings,that the birth of the first civilizations occurred somewhat earlier than was generally believed. Some even argue that they originated exactly on the site of the modern Armenian uplands about twelve thousand years ago.
Some contradictions related to this locality
Concerning the name of the locality among the researchersthere are heated arguments. Some argue that it reflects the historical prerequisites for the fact that Armenians lived there from time immemorial. These researchers believe that it was this people who first settled this territory in ancient times. They also talk about the exclusivity of Armenians, because the highlands where they lived are the cradle of all civilizations. Confirmations are in various ancient manuscripts, during archaeological excavations, even in one of the ancient books - the Bible.
However, other researchers are skepticalto all such conclusions. As for the name, they refer to the fact that it was only in 1843 that it became historical due to Heinrich Abihu. During the trip he was accompanied by representatives of the Armenian Church, as well as Armenian figures, as a result of which everything that he saw was presented as a legacy of Armenian culture. This part of the researchers claims that historically Armenia belonged entirely to other lands, for example, Herodotus, who mentions in his writings this people, speaks of the Armenians in the upper reaches of Euphrates, near Phrygia and in a small part of the mountains near the beginning of the river Galis.
If we consider the name of the highlands, thenancient times he was known as az-Zazawan. Ibn Haukal (Arabic author of the 10th century), who described these lands in his works, speaks of numerous testimonies of Turkic and Azerbaijani (traditions and customs, everyday life, etc.). In addition, the researchers consider it wrong to think that it was in this area that the Biblical events of the World Flood took place, only because of some parts of Noah's ark found in this area.
Be that as it may, it is very difficult to know nowcertainly for those events that occurred in antiquity in this area. Of course, if you do not invent a time machine. Therefore, all disputes should be based only on the facts obtained through excavation and research of found objects.
The Armenian highlands are a terrain that hasancient history and rich in memorable finds of ancient settlements and peoples. Those assumptions that historians and researchers of the region make about the most ancient times are difficult both to refute and to confirm. A simple inhabitant can only admire unusual finds and imagine how they used the ancient ancestors.