The idea and history of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don"
The most significant creative work of MikhailSholokhov considered the novel "Quiet Flows the Don." In this work, the writer fully revealed his literary talent and was able to reliably and interestingly describe the life of the Don Cossacks. The manuscript, covering events of nine years, overcame many obstacles before it was published. How did the story of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don" evolve?
When working on the collection Don StoriesSholokhov came up with the idea of describing the complex share of the Don Cossacks in the revolution of 1917. So the story of the creation of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don" began. A brief description of the campaign of Kornilov to Petrograd with the participation of the Cossacks was called "Donness". After starting work and writing several pages of the work, Sholokhov reflected on whether the book would be of interest to readers. The writer himself grew up in the Don farm, so the events described in the manuscript were close to him and understandable. Mikhail Aleksandrovich reflects on the creation of a work in which not only the revolution will be described, but also the events preceding it. Sholokhov examines the reasons why the Cossacks decided to participate in the revolutionary events, and also creates characters whose fates showed the Cossack life of those years particularly vividly. As a result, Sholokhov gives the book the title "Quiet Flows the Don" and proceeds to write the novel.
Collection of materials
The writer was going to convey to the reader realthe events of those years, so the story of the creation of the novel-epic "Quiet Flows the Don" began with a visit to Sholokhov archives of Moscow and Rostov. There he studied old magazines and newspapers, read special military literature and books on the history of the Don Cossacks.
With the help of friends who had access to emigrantliterature, Sholokhov was able to get acquainted with various notes of generals, as well as diaries of officers, in which military events were described. Picking up material for the book, the writer has done a great deal of historical work. The novel actively uses information from real wartime documents: leaflets, letters, telegrams, orders and regulations. Also, Sholokhov added to the book his memories - the writer worked in the detachment and actively participated in the fight against the bandits. So, many scenes have appeared thanks to personal impressions of the author.
Working with material
In order to fully immerse in the atmosphereCossack life, the writer moved to the Don in 1926 and is already starting to work on the work there. Settled in the village of Veshenskaya, the writer finds himself in his native environment. Mikhail Sholokhov, who grew up among the Cossacks, well understands the psychology of people around him, knows their way of life and moral values.
In 1927 the history of creation began to developnovel "Quiet Flows the Don", a brief description of the events which the author distributed to 4 volumes. Much time took up the composition of the structure of the work, as the writer had to keep in mind a lot of facts, events and people. In the novel there are both new characters and historical figures: Chernetsov, Krasnov, Kornilov. In the work "Quiet Flows the Don" there are more than 200 people who really existed, as well as 150 new heroes created by the author. Some characters are fully revealed together with the plot of the novel, while others appear only in separate scenes.
The title of the novel
For the Russian people, the Don River turned into aa symbol of the uneasy fate of the Cossacks. The calm current became an image of the peaceful life of the people, and afterwards witnessed the changes brought about by the revolution. Since ancient times the Cossacks have been engaged in agriculture. Don farms were no exception - the soil there was fertile, so the households were located along the banks of the river.
The life of the farmer is measured and comparable tocalm flow of the river. But the habitual existence has changed for the population, and the title of the book has acquired a different meaning: it is no longer the calm flow of the Don, but the land of the Don region, which was always inhabited by Cossacks and did not see rest in its time.
The history of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don"that in the title of the book a contradictory combination of words is used, because in the novel of Sholokhov the river is rampant, war is on it, blood is pouring, people are dying. But the generous flow of the quiet Don will not dry out, and the Don Cossacks will not be suppressed. And the soldiers will return to their homeland, and they will continue to live on their land and plow it.
Composition of the work
The work "Quiet Don" is a novel-epic, soas the book displays the main facts of the First World War and the Civil War, as well as a huge number of heroes belonging to different social and political groups. The events of the novel last a long time - 9 years, describing the events from 1912 to 1921. In the work, all the actions of the protagonist correlate with the life of the population and nature. The history of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don" shows the opposition of the composition of the book: on the one hand, love and peaceful peasant life, and on the other - cruelty and military events.
The idea and history of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don"include the heroes, whose lives the writer tried inextricably to connect with the Don Cossacks. Grigory Melekhov combines both individual features and national characteristics of his fellow countrymen. The writer shows the main character to the devoted family traditions, but is able to break any norm in a fit of passion. Gregory is different in the battles, but for all the war years, he will more than once yearn for his native land.
Sholokhov creates a hero with great inner strengthand a sense of dignity, and also gives him a rebellious beginning. The turning point in history, which changed the usual order of the Don Cossacks, coincided with the changes in Gregory's private life. The hero can not figure out with whom he needs to stay - with red or white, and also rushes between two women. At the end of the book, Gregory returns home, to his son and his native land.
Female images in the novel
Creative story of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don"says that to describe Grigory Melekhov, the author used the image of an ordinary Russian peasant. Writing the main characters of the work, Mikhail Sholokhov made his own personal notions about the fate of Russian women.
This is Grigory's mother - Ilinichna, who embodies the idea of the unity of all people and motherhood, capable of love and compassion, even to people who have hurt her.
Grigory's wife is Natalya, who keeps the family hearth, despite spiritual experiences because of her husband who does not love her.
Aksinya also stands out for her thirst for freedom and all-consuming love - she believes that an unsuccessful marriage removes all the blame for her violation of norms and prohibitions.
Charges of plagiarism
The first two books, published in 1928,brought the writer great success. He was sent rave letters and invitations to speak, but within a year the public's attitude changed. People began to doubt that a young and inexperienced author wrote a work of such a huge artistic power on their own. At the time the "Pacific Don" was written, the author was 22 years old, and from literary achievements on his account - only one collection of short stories. The fluctuations were also caused by the fact that the author wrote the first two books in just 2.5 years, and after all Sholokhov was considered an uneducated person, since he graduated from only 4 classes of the school.
Also raised doubts about the authorship of the storythe creation of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don," a summary of which was allegedly found in a white officer's bag and published by Sholokhov as his work. To prove the innocence, the writer had to collect a special commission and with its help to refute the slander. As a result of three examinations - graphological, identification and textual - authorship was confirmed.
Publication of the novel
The first and second books had a hugesuccess, but with the publication of the third part there were problems. Its first chapters were published in the newspaper, but then these issues ceased. The reason was that Sholokhov was the first of the authors to describe in detail and fully the events of the Civil War. The story of the creation of the novel "Quiet Flows the Don" tells that in the third book editors were cut whole chapters. Sholokhov preferred not to make any changes.
Literary critics demanded accessionGrigory Melekhov to Bolshevism, but readers with pleasure accepted the choice of the hero, since for him this decision became the only true one. The full text of the work without edits and additions to the editor was published only in 1980.
The creative history of the creation of the novel-epic "Quiet Flows the Don" was not an easy one, but, despite all the difficulties, the novel got world fame and earned the love of readers from different countries.