Theory of Communication
The theory of communication is a scientific discipline aboutsocial process of interaction, which underlies any processes of human life in particular and social life in general. The process of interaction and its results have the same name.
The theory of communication is treated differently in the writings of well-known scientists.
So M.S. Andrianov understood by it the semantic aspect of interaction in society. IP Yakovlev believed that the theory of communication is a science that studies the importance of communication in society, its structure, development, means, processes and other aspects. Sillars and Baxter considered it a means for building and maintaining relations between people. S. V. Borisovna, the theory of communication was understood as the process of transmitting information through various channels, as well as its perception, which is socially conditioned and occurs in the form of communication between specific individuals and the masses with the help of certain means.
The same S. V. Borysnev singled out several models of communication, which were formed in the process of historical development.
First of all, this isthe model of G. Lassuela.It is classical, consists of five elements involved in the process of communication:
- communicator, that is, the one who transmits the message;
- message, that is, the subject of the transfer;
- a channel, i.e., a method for performing this transmission;
- audience, that is, the direction of the message to a specific person or several persons;
- result, that is, the efficiency of the message being transmitted.
Socio-psychological model of T. Newcombo.It is also called interactivity. This model takes into account the relationship between the participants themselves and their relationship to the subject under discussion. She argues that in the case of a coincidence of interpersonal relations, the participants of communication will strive to ensure that their relations to the object being negotiated also coincide. If the relations between the subjects of communication do not coincide, their attitude to the object of conversation will also be different. Supporters of this model consider it not entirely normal for such a situation when, in the case of a clear discrepancy between the participants in a conversation, their relations coincide with the subject of discussion.
The noise model of K. Shannon - W. Weaver.It differs from the classical model by only onean additional element - noise, or interference that hinders the communication process. When there is interference in the channel and transmission, technical noise occurs. Distortion of the value of the transmitted message is a semantic noise.
Factor model G. Malecki.It is one of the variants of the previous model with the inclusion of additional factors that form the context of the communication process and affect its subjects.
Closed model K. Osgood and V. Shramm.It considers the one who sends the message and the person who receives it, as equivalent partners.
Text model of A. PyatigorskyUnder communication, one understands human communication with others and with oneself through messages in writing.
R. Jacobson proposed a model of communication in which communication is understood as a speech event. The main role in it belongs to the language, and not information (in contrast to the Shannon model).
The fundamentals of communication theory are considered inmany textbooks intended for students studying sociology, psychology, law, political science and other sciences related to various aspects of public life. Questions of communication in society are well covered in the works of SV Borisov, MS Andrianov, OA Gulevich, IP Yakovlev, P. Vatslavik and other scientists. Especially popular is G. Pocheptsov's "Theory of Communication", published in 2001, it continues to be reprinted, since interest in it still remains at a high level.