What are soil groups
What are soil groups?
Rocks that form the surface layer of the lithosphere are called soils. They were formed in a natural way as a result of the destruction of the main continental plates. The reason for this was various processes: displacement of lithospheric plates, air and water erosion, anthropogenic activity, as well as the vital activity of the animal and plant world. By origin, there are two groups of soils: mineral and organic formation. In turn, by the nature of the bonds between the particles, as well as by mechanical strength and size, semi-rock, rock, loose, cohesive and coarse rocks are distinguished.
Features and specifications
Each soil group has its own qualities, which are well studied and successfully applied in construction practice. Semi-rocks are characterized by a cemented composition, which has the ability to further compaction. There are non-water resistant (gypsum) and water resistant (marls) compounds.Rock formations, on the contrary, are water resistant and practically non-compressible. These include sandstones and granites. Sandy groups of soils (bulk) are the result of weathering and erosion. These are incoherent particles of small size, the total mass of which does not possess plasticity, but perfectly fills various cavities. Connected rocks (otherwise called clay) are also the result of the destruction of primary rocks, however, unlike sand compositions, their particle size does not exceed 0.005 mm, which allows the total mass of the substance to be sufficiently plastic to be used successfully not only in construction, but also in other spheres of human activity. Coarse soil groups are particles of 2 mm and more, unrelated. However, their wide distribution is due to the high strength factor.
Properties and criteria for evaluating the soil
In construction practice, sand and clay rocks are most often used, as well as their mixtures, semi-rock and coarse-grained compositions. The complexity, cost of development and the efficiency of the production process technology are the main indicators by which a particular soil is evaluated.The properties required for various construction works are quite diverse: humidity, lumpiness, strength, washability, and many others. For example, humidity determines how saturated the soil is with water, as well as the ratio of the mass of liquid to the mass of the entire composition. Loosening is characterized by the percentage increase in the volume of rocks in the process of their development. Distinguish the coefficient of primary and residual loosening. The angle of repose - an important indicator of the soil - is determined by the physical parameters of the composition, which it has in a state of critical equilibrium.