What is adrenaline? Action adrenaline
Everyone needs to have an idea what adrenaline is and what happens in the human body when a hormone is released into the blood, what effect it has on blood pressure and what is harmful.
Essence of this hormone
Adrenaline is the main hormone produced by the adrenal glands. In English, this body is called "adrenal", thus giving the name to this substance. It is based on the amino acid tyrosine. However, the presence of this hormone can be found not only in the adrenal glands. It is found throughout the human body - tissues and organs. The action of adrenaline is unique.
Being a stress hormone, it is most actively produced in the event of stress situations, danger, anxiety, fear, in addition, when receiving injuries, burns and in other shock states. Adrenaline is a hormone that prepares our body to resist everything around us.He is able to cheer up, encourages people to action. This effect contributes to an increase in tissue metabolism. In addition, adrenaline accelerates the breakdown of fats and stops their formation. Since fat is in some way energy, together with it, the hormone improves the performance of skeletal muscles and increases the motor activity.
Getting into the blood, affects all human organs. As a result, the central nervous system is activated, heart contractions increase, smooth muscles of the bronchi and intestines relax. The hormone helps to increase the number of leukocytes in the blood and increase the activity of platelets.
Once in the blood, it affects almost all organs and systems of the body.
Let us consider in more detail how it affects each system separately.
- The cardiovascular system. Adrenaline in the blood helps to stimulate the heart's adrenoreceptors, which speeds up and strengthens the contraction of muscles. In the process, this facilitates atrioventricular conduction and increases myocardial automatism. These changes can lead to arrhythmias, high blood pressure and excitement of the centers of the vagus nerves. It inhibits the heart muscle.In this case, it is possible to observe the occurrence of reflex transient bradycardia.
- Central nervous system. Due to the passage of the hormone through the blood-brain barrier, the central nervous system is stimulated. Adrenaline helps to increase wakefulness, mental activity, energy. In addition, he mobilizes the psyche, there is a feeling of tension, anxiety, anxiety. It follows that the action of adrenaline increases, which makes the body resistant to shock and stressful situations.
- Metabolism. As a catabolic hormone, adrenaline actively acts on the metabolism in the body. This increases the blood sugar level, improves tissue metabolism. It affects the liver cells, causing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, the formation of glycogen in the liver and muscles of the skeleton is slowed down, the capture and processing of glucose is activated. This activates glycolytic enzymes, increases the breakdown of fats and slows the formation of lipids. That's what adrenaline is.
Action on other systems
- The hormone has a different effect on smooth muscle, depending on adrenoreceptors.
- Skeletal muscles are under the influence of the trophic action of adrenaline. As a result, the performance of skeletal muscles is improved. When its minor accumulations affect the body for a long time, functional hypertrophy of muscles occurs. This condition is the mechanism of adaptation of the body to long-term prolonged stress, and also helps to transfer high physical exertion. With the constant effect of a hormone of high concentration, increased protein catabolism develops. As a result, depletion, reduction in muscle mass, and weight loss occur.
- Adrenaline in the blood stimulates its clotting. This leads to an increase in the number and functional activity of platelets. During blood loss, the density of the hormone in the blood increases, leading to hemostasis. In addition, this entails an increase in the number of leukocytes, which reduces the development of inflammatory reactions.
In addition, adrenaline acts as an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory agent. Reduces the sensitive function of tissues. In addition, the adrenergic receptors of the bronchioles are stimulated, a spasm is passed, and the mucous membrane edema is eliminated. What is adrenaline, is now clear.
The impact of the hormone on the body
Adrenaline has a wide impact on the human body. With a strong release of the hormone into the blood, diverse emotions are generated. These changes can be both positive and negative.
It is often called the "stress hormone." Thanks to him, the body is preparing to endure shock and stressful situations. In connection with an increase in the level of adrenaline in the blood, a person begins to act quite actively, vivacity appears and emotionality increases. The motor function of the skeletal muscles becomes more active.
Adrenaline brings benefit only when its release in large quantities happens occasionally. Consider the positive effect of the hormone in general on the body:
- In humans, the reaction to external stimuli improves, peripheral vision is awakened.
- Due to the narrowing of blood vessels and blood flow to the main groups of muscles, heart, lungs, muscle tone increases. With this condition, a person is able to lift a lot of weight, cope with the distance, run much faster.
- Adrenaline helps to improve mental abilities, which is reflected in quick decision-making, lightning-fast work of logic, and activation of memory.
- When adrenaline is elevated, it helps to expand the airways. Oxygen enters the lungs faster, which contributes to a good transfer of large physical loads, helps to calm down in a stressful situation. All this leads to a decrease in the load on the heart.
- Adrenaline significantly increases the pain threshold, helps to transfer shock. Having significant physical injuries, a person, being under the influence of a hormone, is able to continue to perform any activity, but, unfortunately, not for long. This effect helps to reduce the load on the central nervous system. As already noted, the adrenaline hormone gland is the adrenal cortex.
When released, his body loses a lot of energy. Part of it goes to fight stress. This explains the brutal appetite of a person after suffering shocks or shocks. You should not worry about the possible appearance of excess weight, because energy does not cease to be quickly used.
You should know about the features of adrenaline. In the body, there is a parallel release of the hormone and activation of the systems designed to repay it.
In medical practice, epinephrine preparations are used as anti-shock therapy. When physical injuries are received, a high level of adrenaline in the blood contributes to a better transfer of pain shock by a person. With a sudden cardiac arrest, the hormone can start its work, for this adrenaline is injected directly into the body.
The first negative reaction of high hormone concentrations in the blood is an increase in blood pressure.
In addition, the prolonged release of the hormone into the blood leads to the depletion of the adrenal medulla, which contributes to the development of acute adrenal insufficiency.
In this condition, the heart may suddenly stop. This explains the need to avoid long-term stressful situations. In particular, beware of shock is necessary for people with a weakened heart, as it may not withstand the effects of a large dose of adrenaline, as a result of a heart attack or stroke.
Scientists have shown that prolonged stress, which occurs in the body under the influence of adrenaline, often lead to the formation of a stomach ulcer.
We examined in detail what adrenaline is.